4. «General Chemistry», Darrell D. Ebbing & Steven D. Gammon
Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, 2009 (9th Edition).
5. «General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications»,
Ralf H. Petrucci, William S. Hawood, Geoff E Herring, & Jeffry Madura, Prentice Hall, 2006 (9th Edition).
6. «General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts», Raymond Chang
McGraw-Hill Science Engineering, 2007
7. «Chemistry: The Central Science»,Theodore E. Brown, Eugene H. LeMay, & Bruce E. Bursten, Prentice Hall, 2006 (10th Edition)
8. «Chemistry», John McMurry, Robert C. Fay, & Logan McCarty
Prentice Hall, 2003 (4th Edition)
9. «Chemistry», Steven S. Zumdahl, Houghton Mifflin College Div
2007 (7th Edition).
1. Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations
Molecular weight and formula weight. The mole concept. Mass percentages from the formula. Elemental analysis: Percentages of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Determining formulas. Molar interpretation of a chemical equation. Amounts of substances in a chemical reaction. Limiting reactant: Theoretical and percentage yields.
2. Chemical Reactions: An Introduction
Ionic theory of solutions. Molecular and ionic equations. Precipitation reactions. Acid – base reactions. Oxidation – reduction reactions. Balancing simple oxidation – reduction reactions. Molar concentration. Diluting solutions. Gravimetric analysis. Volumetric analysis.
Energy and Its Units. Heat of reaction. Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change. Thermochemical Equations. Applying Stoichiometry to Heats of Reaction. Measuring Heats of Reaction. Hess’s Law. Standard Enthalpies of Formation. Fuels-Foods, Commercial Fuels and Rocket Fuels.
4. Ionic and Covalent Bond
Describing ionic bonds. Electron configuration of ions. Ionic radii. Describing covalent bonds. Polar covalent bonds. Electronegativity. Writing Lewis electron-dot formulas. Delocalized bonding – Resonance. Exceptions to the octet rule. Formal charge and Lewis formulas. Bond length and bond order. Bond energy.
5. Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory
The VSEPR model. Dipole moment and molecular geometry. Valence bond theory. Description of multiple bonding. Principles of molecular orbital theory. Electron configurations of diatomic molecules of the second-period elements. Molecular orbitals and delocalized bonding.
Types of solutions. Solubility and the Solution Process. Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility. Ways of Expressing Concentration. Vapor Pressure of a Solution. Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression. Osmosis. Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutions. Colloids.
7. Rates of Reaction
Definition of Reaction Rate. Experimental Determination of Rate. Dependence of Rate on Concentration. Change of Concentration with Time. Temperature and Rate; Collision and Transition-State Theories. Arrhenious Equation. Elementary Reactions. The Rate Law and the Mechanism. Catalysis.
8. Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium-A dynamic Equilibrium. The Equilibrium Constant. Heterogeneous Equilibria; Solvents in Homogeneous Equilibria. Qualitatively Interpreting the Equilibrium Constant. Predicting the Direction of Reaction. Calculating Equilibrium Concentations. Removing Products of Adding Reactants. Changing the Pressure and Temperature. Effect of a Catalyst.
9. Acids and Bases
Arrhenius concept of acids and bases. Brønsted–Lowry concept of acids and bases. Lewis concept of acids and bases. Relative strengths of acids and bases. Molecular structure and acid strength. Self ionization of water. Solutions of a strong acid or base. The pH of a solution.
10. Acid-Base Equilibria
Acid-Ionization Equillibria. Polyprotic Acids. Base-Ionization Equillibria. Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions. Common-Ion Effect. Buffers. Acid-Base Titration Curves.